Over the past 50 years, the UK's employment structure has changed in line with the Clark Fisher Model. 50 years ago, the UK's secondary sector was of fairly high importance with 38% of people employed in it, but since 1960, it has been in decline with the UK experiencing deindustrialisation. In 2010, only 18% of of people were employed in the secondary sector while 80% of people were employed in the tertiary sector. The main reason for this is globalisation.
|Industrial Sector||Employment Change||Why|
|Mining and Quarrying||2000: 15,300
|Iron and Steel||1960: 250,000
|Footwear, textiles and clothing||1960: 1 million
The large majority of people in the UK (80%) work in the tertiary/service sector. The amount people earn varies a lot because the types of jobs within this sector can be very different. For example, there can be cleaners who work on the minimum wage (£6.19 per hour in 2012), and then there are the city bankers who can earn £250,000 or more in a year. Tertiary sector jobs such as Retail, Hotels + Catering, Finance, Education and Health have all grown in recent decades. The largest growth was in Health with a 90% increase between 1981-2011.
Quaternary sector jobs have also begun to grow in the UK. In 1981, only 1.7 million people worked in ICT, professional, technical and scientific employment, but in 2011 it grew to 3.7 million. This growth is because of the investments firms are making in larger research facilities and to develop and keep up with the rapidly moving industries. The quaternary sector is important because...
The current strengths in the quaternary sector which the UK has are:
Employment can be classified in different ways, for example:
|Total Workforce||1960: 24 million
2010: 27 million
|Despite the UK's population growing 10 million in this time period, the total work force only grew by 3 million. This is because young people are staying in education for longer and there are more elderly people who aren't or unable to work.|
|Average wages||Full time wages
1960: £14 (worth £220 today)
|The decline in unskilled and skilled manual jobs means to get a job people need some qualifications and skills, and therefore will earn more money.|
|Women in the workforce||1960: 35%
|In 1960, women only received 20% of university degrees, today it is up to over 50%. Women are focusing more on their careers, being more independent, deciding to marry later on in life and have fewer children.|
|Part-time jobs||1960: 5%
|The 1960s workforce wasn't as flexible as it is today. Part-time work also suits people with families more than full-time work.|
|Working hours||1960: 42 hours a week
2010: 32 hours a week (37 for full-time)
|More people are working part-time or working at home.|
There has also been an increase in temporary work in addition to part time work. This is because companies may only need extra workers when there is an increase in demand for them. For example, at Christmas shops will often employ extra temporary workers to help with all the extra Christmas shoppers.
The UK is seen to have a 'North-South Divide' in economic terms.
Coal-mining, shipbuilding, chemicals and iron and steel production used to be the main industries in the North-East region of England, however they have rapidly declined in recent decades. For example, in 1947, there were 108,000 miners working in 127 pits, but by 1994, the last mine closed and employment fell to just 55. Even today, the North-East relies more on secondary industry employment and public services, while the South-East has a more private industry in the tertiary and quaternary sectors. Because of this, the economic conditions in the South-East are much better than in the North-East.
Source: Office for National Statistics licensed under the Open Government License v2.0.
There are many different reasons to explain the differences between the South-East and North-East:
As different regions of the UK moves into post-industrialisation and out of industrialisation as the Clark Fisher Model shows, the factories which were in use in the industrial period are closed and replaced by offices, retail units and science parks of tertiary and quaternary industries. All these changes have environmental impacts, both positive and negative.
Sheffield used to be UK's steel industry until the 1980s when the industry declined dramatically with deindustrialization. As a result of industrialization 120,000 people lost their jobs between 1971-2008, a 74% loss.
The de-industrialization Sheffield has experienced has meant that it is now a gone from the manufacturing industry into retail, software development, property development, business services all having positive and negative impacts on the city:
|Positive Impacts||Negative Impacts|
During the industrial period, factories would be polluting local rivers and streams with their industrial waste. Now these factories have closed down, the waters are no longer polluted and the water quality has significantly improved.
As the steel factories closes, about 900 hectares of derelict land and abandoned buildings were left behind, many of them polluted with heavy metals and other industrial waste.
Similarly to water quality, now that there are no factories releasing pollution into the environment, the air quality is much better.
As people are unable to find work in inner Sheffield, there is increasing pressure on the greenfield sites on the edge of Sheffield for homes and businesses
The old industrial sites which are disused are now available for regeneration, e.g. Hadfield's steelworks is now Meadowhall shopping centre
As jobs in Sheffield are becoming scarcer, people are having to travel further to reach their jobs increasing congestion
|Greenfield Site||A piece of land that has not been built on before, but is now considered for development|
|Brownfield Site||A piece of land that has been used and then abandoned, and is now waiting to be developed again.|
|Infrastructure already in place||Sites could be contaminated with industrial waste requiring decontamination (expensive)|
|More environmentally friendly and sustainable than building on greenfield sites||Old buildings will have to be demolished (expensive)|
|Can improve the look of an area- regeneration||Immediate access to the area may be poor with congested roads|
|Well connected sites - often located in inner cities|
|New sites do not need clearing so can be cheaper to prepare||New infrastructure will need to be built, e.g roads, drains, electricity, gas|
|Pleasant countryside environment may appeal to potential home owners||Destroys wildlife habitats|
|More space for gardens||More traffic on country roads|
|No restrictions of existing road network||Less land for farming|
|Land can be cheaper on outskirt so plots can be larger||Encourages urban sprawl|
|Some shops and business parks on outskirts provide local facilities||May encourage more car travel as people need to commute to and from work|
There are a series of factors which is causing the economy and employment in the UK to change dramatically.
Development of the Digital Economy
Technology has made huge leaps and bounds across the world, changing our lives at work, at home, at school. It is generating new market opportunities and having major economic impacts. In 2000, only 29% of people in the UK owned a personal computer. In 2009, this figure had gone up to 76%. In 2011, the use of mobile phones reached 78% of all UK households. With computers, tablets, mobile phones, digital cameras, satellite navigation, embedded sensors and a vast array of other interconnected devices part of our daily lives, it is the beginning of a shift towards a world of computing.
There are various costs and benefits associated with the digital economy:
Education and Research
Education and research is becoming of increasing importance in all aspects of our lives. Economic development in particular is being impacted upon positively by universities conducting more research and developing more new products such as new treatments for disease and new drugs to combat disease. An increase in funding in research for new technologies is creating new jobs and even new industries. For example, in the North East, the number of companies with biotech interests has gone from only 28 in 2003 to 54 in 2011, contributing £700 million to the economy and providing 5,000 jobs for people. The area has interests in biofuels, and stem-cell and regenerative medicine.
In recent years there has been a large increase in the number of foreign workers in the UK. These workers from countries like Romania, Poland and Portugal will often come to the UK to do the jobs which British people don't want to do, or fill skills shortages in other areas. There are many workers from EU countries who come to the UK to work in the UK agriculture industry. In 2011, there were 2.6 million foreign workers in the UK.
Green sector employment
Europe has pledged to reduce its carbon emissions by 20% by 2020 and to obtain 20% of its energy from renewable sources. This will mean there will be new jobs created by these new green technologies to help achieve these targets. The areas where the jobs will be created are:
The way people are now working has also changed along with the types of job people do. The main cause for this is probably the communications revolution, allowing people to be able to work together but be in different offices, at home or even in another country.
Home working is where people work from home on a permanent basis. This type of working suits people whose job doesn't require face-to-face contact with people and are often working on a computer for long hours. Workers are able to work from home using ICT to stay in contact with the office and other colleagues. Other benefits from homeworking include:
Teleworking is very similar to homeworking, but as well as working from home, workers are able to work from wherever they are using mobile communications and ICT. They may find themselves working from a coffee shop or various other locations. The benefits are the same for homeworking. These people are sometimes referred to as 'nomad workers' or 'web commuters'.
Increasing numbers of people are deciding to set up their own business and become self-employed. They may be working from home, working in their shop, factory or offices. People may choose to become self-employed because:
The number of self-employed people in 2002 was only 3.3 million, however in 2011 it went up to 4.5 million.
In the last 20 years, there has been a growth in flexible working, affecting different people in different ways:
|Flexitime||choosing when to work around a core period|
|Compressed hours||working agreed hours over fewer days|
|Homeworking||working from home|
|Zero-hours contracts||no specified hours, but always available to meet the needs of the employer|